Botany

Micrasterias
fimbriata

BA410

PlanFluar 10x

Moticam 10
Botany

Crystals in
Larix decidua

BA410E

PlanApo 40x
pol. lam.

Moticam 10 stack
Zoology

Parnassius apollo
part of wing

BA310E

PlanApo 20x

Moticam 10 stack
Histology

Femur cross
section

BA310E

PlanApo 20x

Moticam 10
Pathology

Haemolysis
streptococcus
sepsis

BA410

PlanAchro 100x o.i.

Moticam 5
Microbiology

Onion mitosis

BA410 

PlanAchro 60x

Moticam 5
Zoology

Barnacle on
mussel

SMZ-171

Stereo

Moticam 10 stack
General

Tumbled gems

SMZ-171

Stereo

Moticam 10 stack
Pathology

Eimeria stiedae
in liver

BA410 
PlanFluar 20x

Moticam 10
Microbiology

Penicillium with
conidiophores

BA310E

PlanApo

Moticam 10
Histology

Artery

BA410

PlanAchro 10X

Moticam 5
General

Urea crystals

BA410

PlanFluar 20x
pol lam

Moticam 10

How to chase away nightmares

  • Citrine

Citrine is rare in nature. In the days before modern gemology, its tawny color caused it to be confused with topaz. Today, its attractive color, plus the durability and affordability it shares with most other quartzes, makes it the top-selling yellow-to-orange gem. In the contemporary market, citrine’s most popular shade is an earthy, deep, brownish or reddish orange. It’s an attractive alternative not only for topaz, but also for yellow sapphire. The finest citrine color is a saturated yellow to reddish orange free of brownish tints. According to legend it is the symbol of friendship and is able to chase away nightmares.


 

Some roses are growing in the desert

  • desert rose depth
  • desert rose

Desert Rose is the name given to rosette formations of the minerals gypsum and barite with sand inclusions. The 'petals' are crystals flattened, fanning open along characteristic gypsum cleavage planes. The rosette crystal habit tends to occur when the crystals form in arid sandy conditions, such as the evaporation of a shallow salt basin.

Desert roses are mineral formations that are found on the surface and are beautiful examples of the natural power of the shaping forces of wind, water and pressure in dry, arid regions. These formations are also called Sand Roses, Rose Rocks, Selenite Roses, Gypsum Roses, and Barite Roses.

Native American stories told us that these were rocks carved into flowers by our ancestors to let us know they were here before us. Desert Roses take on the color of the sand because Selenite is a fibrous mineral and fine sand becomes trapped between the fibers as it crystallizes.

Desert roses are only found in deserts, which is how they got the name. Gypsum Selenite Desert Roses are mostly from the Sahara Middle East Region, Southwest USA and Mexico. The Barite Rose Rocks are more abundant in Oklahoma than anywhere else in the world and are the state rock of Oklahoma. Once these rock formations reach the surface, they are eroded quickly by the forces of wind and water. The quality of the specimen reflects how quickly it was collected.


 

Diamonds are forever

  • smz-171mot10

The first diamonds were discovered more than five thousand years ago in India and have held mankind for many enigmas since then: how was it that diamond was harder than any known matter, what was the composition of this mineral, etc. The rough, sometimes unsightly looking stones were so hard that they could only be polished after it had been discovered that this was  possible by ‘rubbing’ two rough diamonds against each other. This allowed to create "windows" on the surface of the rough stone, which caused the incident light to reflect in a superior manner.

Since long diamond remained draped in a veil of mysticism and it was considered a stone with magical powers. Plato argued that diamonds (and other precious stones) formed the shell around heavenly spirits, and thus they were living beings. Around the year 100 BC, Pliny the Elder wrote that nothing in the world is harder than diamond, it cannot be split with any metal tool and cannot be affected by fire. Just by covering it with the fresh, still warm blood of a ram, the stone could be cleaved with a powerful hammer on a heavy anvil.

The development of diamond cutting had to go a long way in order to optimally exploit the huge  source of light present in the stone. In India, which for  thousands of years was the only country in the world where diamond was mined, it was learned how to split and polish this material. At the end of the 14th century, Europe only availed over some diamond polishing skills, but it remained an attempt. Only in the middle of the 15th century it became possible to create some facets on the surface of the stones, causing the glare to come out more pronounced than before.

It was the English chemist H.Davy who discovered in the early 19th century that diamond is composed of 100% carbon. Graphite is the softest and diamond the hardest form of carbon. In short, diamond is a very common mineral that, under extreme circumstances, is formed into one of the most special products that has emerged from the interior of the earth.


 

Rock from the depths of the earth

  • Basalt BA410E PlanApo20X pol lam Mot10

Basalt belongs to the group of igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when hot liquid magma (lava) from the depths of the earth, is forced to the surface by volcanic forces and flows like a mudslide directly over the earth's surface, where it cools down and solidifies. Basalt is used in the road and hydraulic engineering in particular, as a result of its favorable mechanical properties.

Basalt as (geological) young volcanic rock, gets a fine-grained structure when cooling down  relatively rapid. It is interspersed with small circular hollow vesicles. The color ranges from dark gray via gray-black to dark blue. Basalt is very solid and can only be poorly split (whereby very irregular fracture surfaces occur)

An impressive basalt formation is located in Northern Ireland (its counterpart in nearby Scotland) This large basalt massif is known as the Giant's Causeway. The basalt columns present there were created about 60 million years ago when lava from the interior of the earth gradually cooled down at the surface. During this phase, cracks were formed (similar to mud in a pond which dries in the sun) These cracks are located not only on the surface, but also at great depths, more or less extended over the entire height of the solidified lava mass. This resulted in columns so typical for basalt. On the surface the columns form a paving-like pattern, of which the basic shape is mainly penta- or hexagonal. However basalt columns with square, octagonal and even triangular cross sections are also found (however the latter very rarely)

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The Giant's Causeway


 

There is history in limestone

  • Limestone fossilized detail SZM171 Moticam 580
  • Limestone fossilized SZM171 Moticam 580

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, and along with shale, is one of the best preservers of fossils. Over time, sedimentary rock presses down around what were once living things to preserve the basic outline of their appearance and physical characteristics. Crack open a large piece of limestone or walk a beach covered with limestone rocks and you are almost guaranteed to find a fossil. If you don't find one, rest assured that they are there, lending the calcium carbonate from bones, exoskeletons and shells to the limestone itself.
Limestone forms when calcite from the water crystallizes or when fragments from coral and shells cement together. Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that contains fossils in the form of sea creatures. Entire reef formations and communities of organisms are found preserved in limestone. The types of fossils found in limestone include coral, algae (see images), clams, brachiopods, bryozoa and crinoids. Most limestone forms in shallow tropical or subtropical seas. In some cases, fossils make up the entire structure of limestone.
Source: eHow