Botany

Micrasterias
fimbriata

BA410

PlanFluar 10x

Moticam 10
Botany

Crystals in
Larix decidua

BA410E

PlanApo 40x
pol. lam.

Moticam 10 stack
Zoology

Parnassius apollo
part of wing

BA310E

PlanApo 20x

Moticam 10 stack
Histology

Femur cross
section

BA310E

PlanApo 20x

Moticam 10
Pathology

Haemolysis
streptococcus
sepsis

BA410

PlanAchro 100x o.i.

Moticam 5
Microbiology

Onion mitosis

BA410 

PlanAchro 60x

Moticam 5
Zoology

Barnacle on
mussel

SMZ-171

Stereo

Moticam 10 stack
General

Tumbled gems

SMZ-171

Stereo

Moticam 10 stack
Pathology

Eimeria stiedae
in liver

BA410 
PlanFluar 20x

Moticam 10
Microbiology

Penicillium with
conidiophores

BA310E

PlanApo

Moticam 10
Histology

Artery

BA410

PlanAchro 10X

Moticam 5
General

Urea crystals

BA410

PlanFluar 20x
pol lam

Moticam 10

When bitten by a tick

  • borrelia
Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by infection with certain bacteria in the genus Borrelia, which are transmitted through the bites of lice or soft-bodied ticks (genus Ornithodoros)
Borrelia duttoni is a Gram-negative, helical bacterium and belongs to the family of Spirochaetaceae. The bacterium is the cause of endemic tick-borne relapsing fever, which is found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. Transmission of Borrelia duttoni mainly occurs via ticks.
In general, Borrelia sp. are responsible for major diseases, including recurrent or relapsing fever. In 1868 the German Otto Obermeier identified the microorganisms during an epidemic in Berlin. The pathogenic potential was demonstrated in 1874 by Gregor Münch, who inoculated himself with Borrelia recurrentis and survived the subsequent relapsing fever. The French microbiologists Sergent and Foley identified the body louse as the vector. The British pathologist Joseph Dutton (famous because of B. duttoni) discovered an alternative vector: the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. He injured himself while performing an autopsy on a patient who had died from borreliosis and died himself from relapsing fever.

Most people who are infected develop sickness between five and 15 days after they are bitten. The symptoms may include a sudden fever, chills, headaches, muscle or joint aches, and nausea. A rash may also occur. These symptoms usually continue for two to 9 days, then disappear. This cycle may continue for several weeks if the person is not treated.

Note: Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease also caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type. The most common sign of infection is an expanding area of redness that begins at the site of a tick bite about a week after it has occurred.


 

Cherichia coli are usually blamed

  • bladder infection
Cystitis, or bladder infection, is the most common urinary tract infection. It occurs in the lower urinary tract (the bladder and urethra) and nearly always in women. In most cases, the infection is brief and acute and only the surface of the bladder is infected. Deeper layers of the bladder may be harmed if the infection becomes persistent, or chronic, or if the urinary tract is structurally abnormal. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI’s) are due to a bacterial infection, most often E. coli. Microscopic examination of the urine sample shows e.g. the presence of white blood cells and bacteria.

Symptoms of lower urinary tract infections usually begin suddenly and may include one or more of the following signs:
• The urge to urinate frequently, which may recur immediately after the bladder is emptied.
• A painful burning sensation when urinating. (If this is the only symptom, then the infection is most likely urethritis, an infection limited to the urethra.)
• Discomfort or pressure in the lower abdomen. The abdomen can feel bloated.
• Pain in the pelvic area or back.
• The urine often has a strong smell, looks cloudy, or contains blood. This is a sign of pyuria, or a high white blood cell count in the urine, and is a very reliable indicator of urinary tract infections.
• Occasionally, fever develops.

Antibiotics are the main treatment for all UTI’s. A variety of antibiotics are available, and choices depend on many factors, including whether the infection is complicated or uncomplicated or primary or recurrent. Treatment decisions are also based on the type of patient (man or woman, a pregnant or nonpregnant woman, child, hospitalized or nonhospitalized patient, person with diabetes). Treatment should not necessarily be based on the actual bacteria count. For example, if a woman has symptoms, even if bacterial count is low or normal, infection is probably present, and the doctor should consider antibiotic treatment.

Source: NY Times Health


 

Miliary TBC

  • 2 tbc lung ba410e plap 10x mot10
  • 1 tbc lung ba410e plap 4x mot10
  • 3 tbc lung ba410e plap 40x mot10

Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions (1–5 mm). Its name comes from a distinctive pattern seen on a chest radiograph of many tiny spots distributed throughout the lung fields with the appearance similar to millet seeds; thus the term ‘miliary’ tuberculosis. Miliary tuberculosis is present in about 2% of all reported cases of tuberculosis and accounts for up to 20% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. It is caused by the filamentary tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis an actinomycete. It was discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, it attacks the various organs of the body. Miliary tuberculosis occurs when the bacilli are spread from a primary infection by the blood and produce a big number of small tubercles (nodules) in other parts of the body, mainly in the lungs.

Clinically, acute miliary tuberculosis, often is a typhoid-like illness that begins shortly after the initial infection, especially in children and adolescents. The tissue responds to the attack of the bacilli by the formation of nodules, hence the name tuberculosis.

The schematic section through a nodule shows the mass of the tubercle bacilli and destroyed cells, surrounded by a zone of nuclear fragments and enclosed by epithelioid cells. The latter develop from macrophages and are characterized by their broad, ovoid nucleus with loosely distributed chromatin and are arranged like an epithelium, hence their name. Numerous nuclei of bean-shaped giant cells lie eccentric. Groups of lymphocytes are distributed more in the periphery of the tubercle.

An advanced stage of tuberculosis is characterized by bacilli being released from the tubercles, often after years, infecting and destroying other organs (kidneys, adrenal glands, bones, joints, spleen, etc.)


 

Malaria

  • plasmodium ba410e planapo 100X mot10
  • diag
Malaria has been recognized since the Greek and Roman civilizations over 2,000 years ago, with different patterns of fever described by the early Greeks. Malaria is the most important tropical disease known to man.  It remains a significant problem in many tropical areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is spreading as a result of environmental changes, including global warming, civil disturbances, increasing travel and drug resistance There are approximately 100 million cases of malaria worldwide with about 1 million of these proving fatal.
Plasmodium is a genus of protists. Infection with this genus is known as malaria. The parasite is spread by two host bodies: a mosquito (the vector) and a vertebrate. There are 200 known species of Plasmodium, only a few of them can infect people. Other types focus amongst others on birds, reptiles and rodents. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles, Culiceta, Mansonia and Aedes can act as a vector of Plasmodium. The vector of the variant harmful to people belongs to the genus Anopheles.
The organism was first discovered by Laveran on November 6, 1880 in a military hospital in Constantine, Algeria. Manson came in 1894 with the hypothesis that the Plasmodium could be transmitted by mosquitoes. This hypothesis was confirmed in 1898 with an experiment of the Italian professor Giovanni Battista Grassi and the British physician Ronald Ross. Ross got the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1902. The name Plasmodium was given in 1885 by Marchiafava and Celli.


 

Antony van Leeuwenhoek was the first to discover ....

  • Eimeria stiedae in liver BFF obj. 20x
Eimeria stiedae is a species of Eimeria (protozoal parasites) that causes hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. It was observed for the first time by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in 1674. The liver is the seat of infection with the Eimeria stiedae parasite in rabbits.

Coccidiosis is a common and worldwide protozoal disease. Rabbits that recover frequently become  carriers.  There  are  2  anatomic  forms:  hepatic,  caused  by  Eimeria  stiedae,  and intestinal,  caused  by  E  magna,  E  irresidua,  E  media,  E  perforans,  E  flavescens,  E intestinalis, or other Eimeria spp. Transmission of both the hepatic and intestinal forms is by ingestion of the sporulated oocysts, usually in contaminated feed or water.

Severity of the disease depends on the number of oocysts ingested. Young rabbits are most susceptible.


 

Streptococcus, friend or foe?

  • Haemolysis streptococcus sepsis BA410 obj. BF 100X o.i. Moticam 2500(1)
  • Haemolysis streptococcus sepsis BA410 obj. BFF 40X Moticam 2500(1)
Hemolysis is the rupturing of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g., blood plasma).

Streptococcus  is  a  genus  of  spherical  Gram-positive  bacteria  belonging  to  the  phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellular division occurs along a single axis in these bacteria, and thus they grow in chains or pairs. Species of streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. Alpha hemolytic species cause oxidization of iron in hemoglobin molecules within red blood cells, giving it a greenish color on blood agar. Beta hemolytic species cause complete rupture of red blood cells. On blood agar, this appears as wide areas clear of blood cells surrounding bacterial colonies. Gamma-hemolytic species cause no hemolysis. In  addition  to  streptococcal  pharyngitis  (strep  throat),  certain  streptococcus  species  are responsible  for  many  cases  of  pink  eye,  meningitis,  bacterial  pneumonia,  endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). However, many streptococcal species are nonpathogenic, and form part of  the  commensal human  micro biome of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, streptococci are a necessary ingredient in producing Emmentaler ("Swiss") cheese.

Sepsis is a potentially fatal whole-body inflammation caused by severe infection. Sepsis can continue even after the infection that caused it is gone. Sepsis causes millions of deaths globally each year. Sepsis is caused by the immune system's response to a serious infection, most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, and parasites in the blood, urinary tract, lungs, skin, or other tissues.

Source: Wikipedia


 

A kind of sleep one would rather do without 

  • Trypanosomiasis sleeping desease BA410BFobj40XMoticam2500
Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tset se fly (Glossina genus) bites whichhave acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring the human pathogenic parasites.

Tsetse flies are found just in sub-Saharan Africa though only certain species transmit the disease. For reasons that are so far unexplained, there are many regions where tsetse flies are found, but sleeping sickness is not. Rural populations living in regions where transmission occurs and which depend on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting are the most exposed to the tsetse fly and therefore to the disease. The disease develops in areas ranging from a single village to an entire region. Within an infected area, the intensity of the disease can vary from one village to the next.Sleeping sickness occurs only in 36 sub-Saharan Africa countries where there are tsetse flies that transmit the disease. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for more than 98% of reported cases of sleeping sickness. Sustained control efforts have lowered the number of new cases. In 2009, the number of cases reported dropped below 10 000 (9878) for first time in 50 years and in 2012 there were 7216 cases recorded. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is complex and requires specifically skilled staff.

Infection and symptoms
In the first stage, the trypanosomes multiply in subcutaneous tissues, blood and lymph. This is known as a first stage or haemolymphatic phase,which entails bouts of fever, headaches, joint pains and itching. In the second stage the parasites cross the blood-brain barrier to infect the central nervous system. This is known as the neurological or meningoencephalic phase. In general this is when more obvious signs and symptoms of the disease appear: changes of behaviour, confusion, sensory disturbances and poor coordination. Disturbance of the sleep cycle, which gives the disease its name, is an important feature of the second stage of the disease. Without treatment, sleeping sickness is considered fatal although cases of healthy carriers have been reported.

Source: World Health Organization


 

A bloody serious affair!

  • Arteriosclerosis SZM 171 Moticam 2500
  • Artery BA410 BF obj. 10X Moticam 2500
Arteries are the blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body. Each artery is a muscular tube lined by smooth tissue and has three layers:
- The intima, the inner layer lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium
- The  media,  a  layer  of  muscle  that  lets  arteries  handle  the  high  pressures  from  the heart
- The adventitia, connective tissue anchoring arteries to nearby tissues

The largest artery is the aorta, the main high-pressure pipeline connected to the heart's left ventricle. The aorta branches into a network of smaller arteries that extend throughout the body. The arteries' smaller branches are called arterioles and capillaries. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs under low pressure, making these arteries unique.

Arteriosclerosis is hardening and thickening of the walls of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis can occur because of fatty deposits on the inner lining of arteries (atherosclerosis), calcification of the wall of the arteries, or thickening of the muscular wall of the arteries from chronically elevated blood pressure. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that is characterized by a buildup of plaque within the arteries. Plaque is formed from fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular  waste,  calcium,  and  fibrin.  Plaque  may  partially or  totally  block  the  blood's  flow through an artery. Two things can happen: bleeding into the plaque, or formation of a clot on the surface of the plaque. If either of these happens and blocks the artery, a heart attack or stroke may result.

Sources: WebMD, Franklin Institute